Homeschooling: A Comprehensive Survey of the Research

  • Robert Kunzman Indiana University
  • Milton Gaither Messiah College
Keywords: homeschooling, home education, alternative education, curriculum, academic achievement, socialization, religion, school regulation


This article provides a comprehensive summary of the English-language research and scholarship on homeschooling, organized into the categories of demographics, curriculum, academic achievement, socialization, law, relationships with public schools, transition to college/adulthood, and international homeschooling. The 351 texts used in this review were culled from virtually the entire universe of English-language academic texts on the topic—more than 1,400 in total. Scholarship was evaluated using three primary criteria: quality of scholarship, significance or influence, and distinctiveness of insight. This review sought to answer the following questions: What primary topics or themes are addressed in the literature? How effective are the methodology and analysis performed? What does the research reveal about homeschooling, and what questions remain unanswered?

Author Biographies

Robert Kunzman, Indiana University
Robert Kunzman is an associate professor at the Indiana University School of Education.  He is the author of Write These Laws on Your Children: Inside the World of Conservative Christian Homeschooling.
Milton Gaither, Messiah College
Milton Gaither is a professor of education at Messiah College (PA).  He is the author of Homeschool: An American History.


Abbott, M. B. & Miller, J. A. (2006). What you need to learn about homeschooling. Contemporary Pediatrics, 23(11): 48-58.

Abrom, A. W. C. (2009). Pennsylvania’s superintendents: Current thoughts on the state of homeschooling. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Widener University, Chester, PA.

Alarcón, P. A. (2010). Recognizing and regulating home schooling in California: Balancing parental and state interests in education. Chapman Law Review, 13, 391-416.

Allan, S. & Jackson, G. (2010). The what, whys and wherefores of home education, and its regulation in Australia. International Journal of Law and Education, 15(1), 55-77.

Angelis, K. L. (2008). Home schooling: Are partnerships possible? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Anthony, K. V. & Burroughs, S. (2010). Making the transition from traditional to home schooling: Home school family motivations. Current Issues in Education, 13(4), 1-33.

Apple, M. W. (2000). The cultural politics of homeschooling. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 256-271.

Apple, M. W. (2006a). The complexities of black home schooling. Teachers College Record. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from http;//

Apple, M. W. (2006b). Education and godly technology. Social Analysis, 50(3), 19-37.

Apple, M. W. (2007). Who needs teacher education? Gender, technology, and the work of home schooling. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34, 111-130.

Arai, A. B. (2000). Reasons for home schooling in Canada. Canadian Journal of Education, 25, 204-217.

Arora, T. (2003). School-aged children who are educated at home by their parents: Is there a role for educational psychologists? Educational Psychology in Practice, 19(2), 103-112.

Arora, T. (2006). Elective home education and special educational needs. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 6(1), 55-66.

Aurini, J. & Davies, S. (2005). Choice without markets: Homeschooling in the context of private education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26, 461-474.

Bach, L. J. (2004). For God or grades? States imposing fewer requirements on religious home schoolers and the religion clauses of the first amendment. Valparaiso University Law Review, 38, 1337-1398.

Badman, G. (2009). Report to the Secretary of State on the review of elective home education in England. London: The Stationery Office.

Balmer, R. H. (2007). Thy kingdom come: How the religious right distorts the faith and threatens America, an evangelical’s lament. New York: Basic Books.

Barratt-Peacock, J. (2003). Australian home education: A model. Evaluation and Research in Education, 17, 101-111.

Bartholomew, K. (2007). Avoiding implicit acceptance of bigotry: An argument for standardized testing of home-schooled children. Cornell Law Review, 92, 1177-1199.

Barwegen, L. M., Falciani, N. K., Putnam, S. J., Reamer, M. B., & Star, E. E. (2004). Academic achievement of homeschool and public school students and student perception of parent involvement. School Community Journal, 14(1), 39-58.

Batista, P. J. & Hatfield, L. C. (2005). Learn at home, play at school: A state-by-state examination of legislation, litigation and athletic association rules governing public school athletic participation by homeschooled students. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 15, 213-265.

Batterbee, D. J. (1992). The relationship between parent-child interactive systems and creativity in home schooled children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Baxter, T. D. (2010). Private oppression: How laws that protect privacy can lead to oppression. Kansas Law Review, 58, 415-471.

Beck, C. W. (2006). Home education: Globalization otherwise? Managing Global Transitions, 4, 249-259.

Beck, C. W. (2008). Home education and social integration. Critical Social Studies, 2, 59-69.

Beck, C. W. (2010). Home education: The social motivation. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 71-81.

Beckstrom, D. C. (2010). Balancing civic values and parents’ free exercise rights. Gonzaga Law Review, 45, 149-188.

Belfield, C. R. (2004). How many homeschoolers are there? New York: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education.

Belfield, C. R. (2005). Home-schoolers: How well do they perform on the SAT for college admissions? In B. S. Cooper (Ed.), Home schooling in full view: A reader (pp. 167-178). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Belfield, C. R. & Levin, H. M. (2005). Privatizing educational choice: Consequences for parents, schools, and public policy. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

Bielick, S., Chandler K., and Broughman, S. P. (2001). Homeschooling in the United States: 1999 (NCES 2001–033). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Blok, H. & Karsten, S. (2011). Inspection of home education in European countries. European Journal of Education, 46(1), 138-152.

Blokhuis, J. C. (2010). Whose custody is it anyway?: ‘Homeschooling’ from a parens patriae perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 8, 199-222.

Bolle, M. B., Wessel, R. D., & Mulvihill, T. M. (2007). Transitional experiences of first year college students who were homeschooled. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 637-654.

Boothe, J. W., Bradley, L. H., Flick, T. M., & Kirk, S. P. (1997). No place like home. American School Board Journal, 184, 8-41.

Boulter, L. T. (1999). Academic achievement in home school education. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED446385)

Brabant, C., Bourdon, S., & Jutras, F. (2003). Home education in Quebec: Family first. Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 112-131.

Brighouse, H. (2002). What rights (if any) do children have? In D. Archard & C. M. Macleod (Eds.), The moral and political status of children (pp. 31-52). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brighouse, H. & Swift, A. (2003). Defending liberalism in education theory and policy. Journal of Education Policy, 18, 377-395.

Brown, T. R. (2003). Primary and secondary public school superintendents’ perceptions of the homeschooling movement in Virginia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

Brynard, S. (2007). Home schooling as an open-learning educational challenge in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 27(1), 83-100.

Buchanan, S. (1987). Evolution of parental rights in education. Journal of Law and Education, 16, 339-349.

Burkard, T. & O’Keefe, D. (2005). The case against compulsory school attendance laws. In J. Van Galen & M. A. Pitman (Eds.), Home Schooling: Political, Historical, and Pedagogical Perspectives (pp. 229-249). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Buss, E. (2000). The adolescent’s stake in the allocation of educational control between parent and state. University of Chicago Law Review, 67, 1233-1289.

Cai, Y., J. Reeve, & Robinson, D. T. (2002). Home schooling and teaching style: Comparing the motivating styles of home school and public school teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 372-380.

Callan, E. (1997). Creating citizens: Political education and liberal democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, W. L. (2001). Moving against the tide: An analysis of home school regulation in Alabama. Alabama Law Review, 52, 649-674.

Cambre, B. M. (2003). Cyber charter schools and the public endorsement of religion. TechTrends, 53(4), 61-64.

Carlson, D. (2009). Homeschooling and bilingual education: A well-kept secret. Encounter, 22(4), 10-13.

Carper, J. C. (2000). Pluralism to establishment to dissent: The religious and educational context of home schooling. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 8-19.

Cavanaugh, C. (2009). Effectiveness of cyber charter schools: A review of research on learnings. TechTrends, 53(4), 28-31.

Chapman, A. & O'Donoghue, T. A. (2000). Home schooling: An emerging research agenda. Education Research and Perspectives, 27(1), 19-36.

Charvoz, A. (1988). Reactions to the home school research: Dialogues with practitioners. Education and Urban Society, 21(1), 85-95.

Chatham-Carpenter, A. (1994). Home vs. public schoolers’ relationships: Differences in social networks. Home School Researcher, 10(1), 15-24.

Cibulka, J. G. (1991). State regulation of home schooling: A policy analysis. In J. Van Galen & M. A. Pitman (Eds.), Home schooling: Political, historical, and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 101-119). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Cizek, G. J. & Ray, B. D. (1995). An analysis of home education research and researchers. Home School Researcher, 11(2), 1-9.

Cogan, M. F. (2010). Exploring academic outcomes of homeschooled students. Journal of College Admission, 208, 18-25.

Coleman, R. E. (2010). Ideologues, pedagogues, pragmatics: A case study of the homeschool community in Delaware County. Unpublished master’s thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

Collum, E. (2005). The ins and outs of homeschooling: The determinants of parental motivations and student achievement. Education and Urban Society, 37, 307-335.

Collum, E. & Mitchell, D. E. (2005). Home schooling as a social movement: Identifying the determinants of homeschoolers’ perceptions. Sociological Spectrum, 25, 273-305.

Conroy, J. C. (2010). The state, parenting, and the populist energies of anxiety. Educational Theory, 60, 325-340.

Cooper, B. S. & Surreau, J. (2007). The politics of homeschooling: New developments, new challenges. Education Policy, 21, 110-131.

Cox, R. S. (2003). Home schooling debate: Is the movement undermining public education? CQ Researcher, 13(2), 25-48.

Dahlquist, K. L., York-Barr, J., & Hendel, D. D. (2006). The choice to homeschool: Home educator perspectives and school district options. Journal of School Leadership, 16, 354-385.

Dalaimo, D. M. (1996). Community home education: A case study of a public school-based home schooling program. Educational Research Quarterly, 19(4), 3-22.

Dare, M. J. (2001). The tensions of the home school movement: A legal/political analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Davies, S. & Aurini, J. (2003). Homeschooling and Canadian educational politics: Rights, pluralism and pedagogical individualism. Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 63-73.

de Waal, E. & Theron, T. (2003). Homeschooling as an alternative form of educational provision in South Africa and the USA. Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 144-156.

DeBoer, S. J. (2008). Who is responsible for our kids? A look into the parent/state relationship in raising children. Regent Journal of International Law, 7, 235-253.

Delahooke, M. M. (1986). Home educated children’s social/emotional adjustment and academic achievement: A comparative study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.

DeRoche, S. J. K. (1993). Home schooling in Illinois: A study of the perceptions of the state regional superintendents of schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Devins, N. (1984). A Constitutional Right to Home Instruction. Washington University Law Quarterly, 62, 435-474.

Devins, N. (1992). Fundamentalist Christian Educators v. State: An inevitable compromise. The George Washington Law Review, 60, 818-840.

Duffey, J. G. (2000). Home schooling children with special needs: A descriptive study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA.

Duggan, M. H. (2010). Are community colleges ‘home-school friendly?’: An exploration of community college web sites as an indicator of friendliness. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34, 55-63.

Duke, S. A. (2003). Standard bearers of the fourth amendment: The curious involvement of home school advocates in constitutional challenges to child abuse investigations. UMKC Law Review, 73, 137-159.

Dumas, T. K., Gates, S., & Schwarzer, D. R. (2010). Evidence for homeschooling: Constitutional analysis in light of social science research. Widener Law Review, 16, 63-87.

Duvall, S. F., Delquadri, J. C., & Ward, D. L. (2004). A preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of homeschool instructional environment for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.

Duvall, S. F., Ward, D. L., Delquadri, J. C., & Greenwood, C. R. (1997). An exploratory study of home school instructional environments and their effects on the basic skills of students with learning disabilities. Education & Treatment of Children, 20, 150-172.

Dwyer, James G. (2006). The relationship rights of children. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Elliott-Engel, A. (2002, 29 July). More Muslims teach children in the home: Faith lessons gain in minority group. Washington Times, p. A1.

Ensign, J. (2000). Defying the stereotypes of special education: Home school students. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 147-158.

Essenberg, W. (2004). Parent personality and the decision to homeschool. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, OH.

Fairchild, E. E. (2002). Home schooling and public education in Iowa: The views of rural superintendents. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

Farris, M. P. (1990). Home schooling and the law. Paeonian Springs, VA: Home School Legal Defense Association.

Feinberg, J. (1980). The child’s right to an open future. In W. Aiken & H. LaFollette (Eds.), Whose child? Children’s rights, parental authority, and state power (pp. 124-153). Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

Fields-Smith, C. & Williams, M. (2009). Motivations, sacrifices, and challenges: Black parents’ decisions to home school. Urban Review, 41, 369-389.

Francisco, K. (2011, January 11). Homeschool regulations ahead? The Journal Gazette. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from

Frost, E. A., and Morris, R. C. (1988). Does home-schooling work? Some insights for academic success. Contemporary Education, 59, 223-227.

Fuller, D. W. (1998). Public school access: The constitutional right of home-schoolers to “opt in” to public education on a part-time basis. Minnesota Law Review, 82, 1599-1630.

Furness, A. (2008). Helping homeschoolers in the library. Chicago: American Library Association.

Gaither, M. (2008a). Homeschool: An American history. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Gaither, M. (2008b, September 30). Brian D. Ray and NHERI, part 1. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Gaither, M. (2009). Homeschooling goes mainstream. Education Next, 9, 10-19.

Galloway, R. A. & Sutton, J. P. (1995). Home schooled and conventionally schooled high school graduates: A comparison of aptitude for and achievement in college English. Home School Researcher, 11(1), 1-9.

Galston, W. (2002). Liberal pluralism: The implications of pluralism for political theory and practice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, K. & McFarland, A. J. (2001). Legal precedents and strategies shaping home schooled students’ participation in public school sports. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 11, 25-49.

Glanzer, P. L. (2008). Rethinking the boundaries and burdens of parental authority over education: A response to Rob Reich’s case study of homeschooling. Educational Theory, 58(1), 1-16.

Glenn, C. & de Groof, J. (2002). Finding the right balance: Freedom, autonomy, and accountability in education. Utrecht: Lemma.

Good, H. M. (2005). ‘The forgotten child of our constitution:’ The parental free exercise right to direct the education and religious upbringing of children. Emory Law Journal, 54, 641-679.

Goodwin, C. B. & Gustavson, M. (2009, spring). Gifted homeschooling in the US. NAGC Magazine, 26-28.

Goymer, S. P. (2000). Getting inside families: Exploring a case study research issue in homeschooling. Home School Researcher, 14(3), 11-18.

Green, C. L. & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2007). Why do parents homeschool? A systematic examination of parental involvement. Education & Urban Society, 39, 264-285.

Greenfield, L. A. (2007). Religious home-schools: That’s not a monkey on your back, it’s a compelling state interest. Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, 9, 1-28.

Grob, W. (2000). Access denied: Prohibiting homeschooled students from participating in public-school athletics and activities. Georgia State University Law Review, 16, 823-843.

Haan, P. & Cruickshank, C. (2006). Marketing colleges to home-schooled students. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 16(2), 25-43.

Hail, D. W. (2003). The impact of state regulation upon the home schooling movement as measured by specific descriptive factors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX.

Hanna, L. G. (2012). Homeschooling education: Longitudinal study of methods, materials, and curricula. Education and Urban Society, 44(5), 609-631.

Harding, T. J. A. (2011). A study of parents’ conceptions of their roles as home educators of their children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Henderson, D. H., & Golanda, E. L. (1991). "Legal conflicts involving home instruction of school-aged children." West's Education Law Reporter, 64, 999-1014.

Henderson, A. C. (1993). The home schooling movement: Parents take control of educating their children. 1991 Annual Survey of American Law, 985-1009.

Hendrix, K. M. (2003). Home school education in Mississippi as perceived by public school district superintendents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Mississippi, University, MS.

Hill, P. T. (2000). Home schooling and the future of public education. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 20-31.

Hobson, P. & Cresswell, R. (1993). Parental rights, education and liberal tolerance. Discourse, 14(1), 44-51.

Holder, M. A. (2001). Academic achievement and socialization of college students who were home schooled. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.

Holinga, K. R. (1999). The cycle of transformation in home school families over time. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Holt, J. (1983). Schools and home schoolers: A fruitful partnership. Phi Delta Kappan, 64, 391-394.

Hopwood, V., O’Neill, L., Castro, G., & Hodgson, B. (2007). The prevalence of home education in England: A feasibility study. Nottingham, UK: Department for Education and Skills.

Howell, C. (2005). Parental duty and the shape of the future. Home School Researcher, 16(3), 1-14.

Huerta, L. A. (2000). Losing public accountability: A home schooling charter. In B. Fuller (Ed.), Inside charter schools: The paradox of radical decentralization (pp. 177-202). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Huerta, L. A., d’Entremont, C., & Gonzalez, M. (2009). Perspectives on cyber and homeschool charters. In M. Berends, M. Springer, D. Baillou, & H. Walberg (Eds.), Handbook of research on school choice (pp. 533-553). New York: Routledge.

Huerta, L. A., Gonzalez, M., & d’Entremont, C. (2006). Cyber and home school charter schools: Adopting policy to new forms of public schooling. Peabody Journal of Education, 81(1), 103.

Isenberg, E. J. (2006). The choice of public, private, or home schooling. New York: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education.

Isenberg, E. J. (2007). “What have we learned about homeschooling?” Peabody Journal of Education, 82, 387-409.

Ivatts, A. (2006). The situation regarding the current policy, provision and practice in elective home education (EHE) for Gypsy/Roma and Traveller children. London: Department for Education and Skills.

Jackson, G, & Allan, S. (2010). Fundamental elements in examining a child’s right to education: A study of home education research and regulation in Australia. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2, 349-364.

James, J. (2007, January/February). Homeschooling for black families. Mothering, 66-71.

Jenkins, T. P. (1998). The performance of home schooled students in community colleges. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX.

Jennens, R. (2011). Professional knowledge and practice in health, welfare and educational agencies in England in relation to children being educated at home: An exploratory review. Child Care in Practice, 17(2), 143-161.

Johnson, D. (2004). Making the grade: Home-school movement puts onus on pediatricians to ensure immunizations are current, developmental issues are addressed. AAP News, 25(4), 178.

Johnson, F. D. (2002). An evaluation of Florida’s home-school students’ sports participation in the Florida High School Activities Association: An initial study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, United States Sports Academy, Daphne, AL.

Jones, S. L. (2008). Religious schooling in America: Private education and public life. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jones, P. & Gloeckner, G. (2004a). First-year college performance: A study of home school graduates and traditional school graduates. Journal of College Admission, 183, 17-20.

Jones, P. & Gloeckner, G. (2004b). A study of admission officers’ perceptions of and attitudes toward homeschool students. Journal of College Admission, 185, 12-21.

Joyce, K. (2009). Quiverfull: Inside the Christian patriarchy movement. Boston: Beacon Press.

Jung, J. H. (2008). Contested motherhood: Self and modernity in South Korean homeschooling. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

Kallman, D. A. (1988). Home schooling: Is it "educational neglect"? Michigan Bar Journal, 67, 486-489.

Kaseman, L. & Kaseman, S. (1991, January/February). Does homeschooling research help homeschooling? Home Education Magazine, 26-27, 46-49.

Kaseman, L. & Kaseman, S. (1995, March/April). Homeschooling perspectives on privacy issues. Home Education Magazine, 15-19.

Kaseman, L. & Kaseman, S. (2002, July/August). Let’s stop aiding and abetting academicians’ folly. Home Education Magazine, 24-27.

Kaseman, L. & Kaseman, S. (2010, January/February). Countering problems created by research on families. Home Education Magazine. Retrieved December 3, 2012 from

Kearney, K. (1992, September/October). Homeschooling highly gifted children. Understanding Our Gifted, 16.

Keddie, C. S. (2007). Homeschoolers and public school facilities: Proposals for providing fairer access. Journal of Legislation and Public Policy, 10, 603-644.

Keim, A. N. (Ed.). (1975). Compulsory education and the Amish: The right not to be modern. Boston: Beacon.

Kelly, P. P. (2006a). Educational neglect and compulsory schooling in Idaho: 13,954 Reasons to take action. Boise, ID: Center for School Improvement & Policy, Boise State University.

Kelly, P. P. (2006b). Educational neglect and compulsory schooling: A status report. Boise, ID: Center for School Improvement and Policy, Boise State University.

Kemble, B. G. (2005). My parents, my sensei: Compulsory education and a homeschooling alternative in Japan. Texas International Law Journal, 40, 335-351.

Kennedy, A. M. & Gust, D. A. (2005). Parental vaccine beliefs and child’s school type. Journal of School Health, 75, 276-280.

Keys, K. & Crain, W. (2009). Parental patience and children's reading: A pilot study of homeschooled children. Encounter, 22(4), 5-9.

Khalili, D., & Caplan, A. (2007). Off the grid: Vaccinations among homeschooled children. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 35, 471-477.

Kidd, T. & Kaczmarek, E. (2010). The experiences of mothers home educating their children with autism spectrum disorder. Issues in Educational Research, 20, 257-275.

Kingston, K. J. & Medlin, R. G. (2006). Empathy, altruism, and moral development in home schooled children. Home School Researcher, 16(4), 1-10.

Klicka, C. J. (2006). Home school heroes: The struggle and triumph of home schooling in America. Nashville: Broadman & Holman.

Klein, C. & Poplin, M. (2008). Families home schooling in a virtual charter school system. Marriage & Family Review, 43, 369-395.

Klugewicz, S. L. & Carraccio, C. L. (1999). Home schooled children: A pediatric perspective. Clinical pediatrics, 38, 407.

Knickerbocker, L. R. (2001). The education of all children with disabilities: Integrating home-schooled children into the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 62, 1515-1554.

Knowles, J. G. (1988). Parents’ rationales and teaching methods for home schooling: The role of biography. Education and Urban Society, 21, 69-84.

Knowles, J. G. (1991a, Jan/Feb). Fox in the chicken coop or goose in the nest laying a golden egg? Reflections on researching home schools. Home Education Magazine, 8(1), 15-17, 39-41, 49.

Knowles, J. G. (1991b). Parents’ rationales for operating home schools. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 23, 203-230.

Knowles, J. G., Marlow, S. E., and Muchmore, J. A. (1992). From pedagogy to ideology: Origins and phases of home education in the United States, 1970-1990. American Journal of Education, 100, 195-235.

Knowles, J. G. & Muchmore, J. A. (1995). Yep! We’re grown up, home-schooled kids--and we’re doing just fine, thank you! Journal of Research on Christian Education, 4(1), 35-56.

Koons, C. (2010). Education on the home front: Home education in the European Union and the need for unified European policy. Indiana International & Comparative Law Review, 20, 145-174.

Kostelecká, Y. (2010). Home education in the post-Communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 30-44.

Kreager, Jr., R. (2010). Homeschooling: The future of education’s most basic institution. University of Toledo Law Review, 42, 227-253.

Kunzman, R. (2005). Homeschooling in Indiana: A closer look. Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation and Education Policy.

Kunzman, R. (2007). Homeschooling. In J. Plucker & C. Callahan (Eds.), Critical issues and practices in gifted education: What the research says (pp. 253-260). Austin, TX: Prufrock Press.

Kunzman, R. (2008). Homeschooling and the law. In K. Lane, M. A. Gooden, J. F. Mead, P. Pauken, & S. Eckes (Eds.), The Principal’s Legal Handbook (pp. 189-204). Dayton, OH: Education Law Association.

Kunzman, R. (2009a). Write these laws on your children: Inside the world of conservative Christian homeschooling. Boston, Beacon Press.

Kunzman, R. (2009b). Understanding homeschooling: A better approach to regulation. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 311-330.

Kunzman, R. (2010). Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 17-28.

Kunzman, R. (2012). Education, schooling, and children’s rights: The complexity of homeschooling. Educational Theory, 62(1), 75-89.

Laats, A. (2010). Forging a fundamentalist “one best system”: Struggles over curriculum and educational philosophy for Christian day schools. History of Education Quarterly, 50, 55-83.

Lambert, S. A. (2001). Finding the way back home: Funding for home school children under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Columbia Law Review, 101, 1709.

Lamson, P. A. (1992). Home schooling: A choice the Cupertino school district supports. The School Administrator, 49(1), 26-27.

Lawrence, F. M. (2007). Home schooling: Status and bibliography. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Lees, H. (2011). The gateless gate of home education discovery: What happens to the self of adults upon discovery of the possibility and possibilities of an educational alternative? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingham, UK.

Leithart, P. J. (2008). The new classical schooling. Intercollegiate Review, 43, 3-12.

Lerner, J. S. (1995). Protecting home schooling through the Casey Undue Burden Standard. University of Chicago Law Review, 62, 363-392.

Levy, T. (2009). Homeschooling and racism. Journal of Black Studies, 39, 905-923.

Liao, M. S. (2006). Keeping home: Home schooling and the practice of conservative Protestant identity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Lickstein, C. V. (2010). Race and education at a crossroads: How Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and Wisconsin v. Yoder shed light on the potential conflict between the black homeschooling movement and K-12 affirmative action programs. Journal of Gender, Race and Justice, 13, 835-857.

Lindsay, K. (2003). The law of home schooling in Australia. Brigham Young University Education & Law Journal, 83-93.

Lines, P. M. (2000). When home schoolers go to school: A partnership between families and schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 159-186.

Lois, J. (2006). Role strain, emotion management, and burnout: Homeschooling mothers' adjustment to the teacher role. Symbolic Interaction, 29, 507-529.

Lois, J. (2009). Emotionally layered accounts: Homeschoolers’ justifications for maternal deviance. Deviant Behavior, 30(2), 201-234.

Lois, J. (2010). The temporal emotion work of motherhood: Homeschoolers’ strategies for managing time shortage. Gender & Society, 24(4), 421-446.

Lubienski, C. (2000). Whither the common good? A critique of homeschooling. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 207-232.

Lubienski, C. (2003). A critical view of home education. Evaluation and Research in Education, 17(2&3), 167-178.

Luffman, J. (1997). A profile of home schooling in Canada. Education Quarterly Review, 4(4), 30-47.

Lukasik, L. M. (1996). The latest home education challenge: The relationship between home schools and public schools. North Carolina Law Review, 74, 1913-1977.

Lunsford, R. B. (2006). Investigation of event marketing practices in United States home education conferences and bookfairs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Prescott, AZ.

Lupu, I. C. (1987a). Home education, religious liberty, and the separation of powers. Boston University Law Review, 67, 971-990.

Lupu, I. C. (1987b). Home education, religious liberty, and the separation of powers: A comment on Care and Protection of Charles. Massachusetts Law Review, 72, 47-55.

MacFarquhar, N. (2008, 26 March). Resolute or fearful, many Muslims turn to homeschooling. New York Times, p. A14.

MacMullan, J. (1994). The constitutionality of state homeschooling statutes. Villanova Law Review, 39, 1309-1350.

Manuel, L. L. (2000). The moral development of home schooled and public schooled adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO.

Mangrum, R. C. (1988). Family rights and compulsory school laws. Creighton Law Review, 21, 1019-1045.

Martin, A. T. (2010). Homeschooling in Germany and the United States. Arizona Journal of International & Comparative Law, 27, 225-282.

Martin-Chang, S., Gould, O. N., & Meuse, R. E. (2011). The impact of home schooling on academic achievement: Evidence from homeschooled and traditionally schooled children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43, 195-202.

Martinez, P. (2009). School is where home is. Islamic Horizons, 38(1), 46-51.

Marzluf, P. (2009). Writing home-schooled students into the academy. Composition Studies, 37(1), 49-66.

Mayberry, M. (1988). Characteristics and attitudes of families who home school. Education and Urban Society, 21(1), 32-41.

Mayberry, M. & Knowles, J. G. (1989). Family unit objectives of parents who teach their children: Ideological and pedagogical orientations to home schooling. Urban Review, 21, 209-225.

McDannell, C. (1995). Creating the Christian home: Home schooling in contemporary America. In D. Chidester & E. T. Linenthal (Eds.), American Sacred Space (pp. 187-219). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

McDowell, S. A. (2000). The home schooling mother-teacher: Toward a theory of social integration. Peabody Journal of Education, 75, 187-206.

McDowell, S. A., Sanchez, A. R., & Jones, S. S. (2000). Participation and perception: Looking at home schooling through a multicultural lens. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 124-146.

McEntire, T. W. (2005). Religious outcomes in conventionally schooled and home schooled youth. Home School Researcher, 16(2), 13-18.

McIntyre-Bhatty, K. (2007). Interventions and interrogations: An analysis of recent policy imperatives and their rationales in the case of home education. Education, Knowledge, and Economy, 1, 241-259.

McMahon, J. B. (1995). An examination of the non-custodial parent's right to influence and direct the child's education: What happens when the custodial parent wants to home educate the child. University of Louisville Journal of Family Law, 33, 723-744.

McMullen, J. G. (2002). Behind closed doors: Should states regulate homeschooling? South Carolina Law Review, 54, 75-110.

McVicker, D. D. (1985). The interest of the child in the home education question: Wisconsin v. Yoder re-examined. Indiana Law Review, 18, 711-729.

Medlin, R. G. (1994). Predictors of academic achievement in home educated children: Aptitude, self-concept, and pedagogical practices. Home School Researcher, 10(3), 1-7.

Medlin, R. G. (2000). Home schooling and the question of socialization. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 107-123.

Meehan, N. & Stephenson, S. (1994). Homeschooling in the United States: A review of recent literature. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 424 922.

Meighan, R. (1981). A new teaching force? Some issues raised by seeing parents as educators and the implications for teacher education. Educational Review, 33, 133-142.

Meighan, R. (1984a). Home-based educators and education authorities: The attempt to maintain a mythology. Educational Studies, 10, 273-286.

Meighan, R. (1984b). Political consciousness and home-based education. Educational Review, 36, 165-173.

Meighan, R. (1995). Home-based education effectiveness research and some of its implications. Educational Review, 47, 275-285.

Meighan, R. & Brown, C. (1980). Locations of learning and ideologies of education. In L. Barton, R. Meighan, & S. Walker (Eds.), Schooling, ideology, and the curriculum (pp. 131-152). Brighton, UK: Falmer.

Meisels, T. (2004). Home-schooling: The right to choose. Israel Affairs, 10(3), 110-137.

Merry, M. & Howell, C. (2009). Can intimacy justify home education? Theory and Research in Education, 7(3), 363-381.

Merry, M. & Karsten, S. (2010). Restricted liberty, parental choice, and homeschooling. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 44, 497-514.

Miller, R. C. (1999). Validity, construction, and application of statute, regulation, or policy governing home schooling or affecting rights of home-schooled students. American Law Reports, 70, 169-259.

Millman, G. & Millman, M. (2008). Homeschooling: A family's journey. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin.

Monk, D. (2003). Home education: A human right? Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 157-166.

Monk, D. (2004). Problematising home education: Challenging “parental rights” and “socialisation.” Legal Studies, 24, 568-598.

Monk, D. (2009). Regulating home education: Negotiating standards, anomalies, and rights. Child and Family Law Quarterly, 21(2), 155-184.

Moore, G. L., Lemmer, E. M., & van Wyk, N. (2004). Learning at home: An ethnographic study of a South African home school. South African Journal of Education, 24(1), 18-24.

Moran, C. E. (2011). How to regulate homeschooling: Why history supports the theory of parental choice. University of Illinois Law Review, 2011, 1061-1094.

Morse, K. (2001). Is homeschooling right for you and your highly gifted child? Understanding Our Gifted, 25-26.

Morton, R. (2010). Home education: Constructions of choice. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 45-56.

Moss, P. A. (1995). Benedictines without monasteries. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Utica, NY.

Murphy, Mark H. (1992). A constitutional analysis of compulsory school attendance laws in the southeast: Do they unlawfully interfere with alternatives to public education? Georgia State University Law Review, 8, 456-486.

Murray, B. (1996). Home schools: How do they affect children? APA Monitor, 1, 43.

Nappen, L. P. (2005). The privacy advantages of homeschooling. Chapman Law Review, 9, 73-109.

Nemer, K. M. (2002). Understudied education: Toward building a homeschooling research agenda. New York: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education.

Nemer, K. M. (2004). Schooling alone: Homeschoolers, individualism, and the public schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Neuman, A. & Aviram, A. (2003). Homeschooling as a fundamental change in lifestyle. Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 132-143.

Oliveira, P. C. M. de, Watson, T. G., & Sutton, J. P. (1994). Differences in critical thinking skills among students educated in public schools, Christian schools, and home schools. Home School Researcher, 10(4), 1-8.

Olsen, C. (2009). Constitutionality of home education: How the Supreme Court and American history endorse parental choice. B.Y.U. Education and Law Journal, 2, 399-423.

Oplinger, D. and Willard, D. J. (2004, November 16). Socialization study inaccurately promoted, researcher says. Akron Beacon Journal, p. A8.

Osborne Jr., A. G. (2008). IDEA and alternative education choices: Legal issues. School Business Affairs, 74(10), 24-26.

Page, B. D. (2001). Changing our perspective: How presumptive invalidity of home school regulations will further the state’s interest in an educated citizenry. Regent University Law Review, 14, 181-214.

Pennings, R., et al. (2011). Cardus education survey. Cardus: Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Perry, S. D. (2008). Comparison of nutritional intake of home school children and public school children: A comparison study. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Peters, S. F. (2003). The Yoder case: Religious freedom, education, and parental rights. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Peterson, D. A. (1985). Home education vs. compulsory attendance laws. Washburn Law Journal, 24, 274-299.

Petrie, A. J. (2001). Home education in Europe and the implementation of changes to the law. International Review of Education, 47, 477-500.

Planty, M., Hussar, W., Snyder, T., Kena, G., KewalRamani, A., Kemp, J., Bianco, K, & Dinkes, R. (2009). The condition of education 2009 (NCES 2009-081). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Port, C. (1989). ‘A crack in the wall’: the Lee family’s experience of home-based education. Educational Review, 41, 153-170.

Prather, J. (2000). Part-time public school attendance and the freedom of religion: Yoder’s impact upon Swanson. Journal of Law and Education, 29, 553-559.

Princiotta, D. and Bielick, S. (2006). Homeschooling in the United States: 2003 (NCES 2006-042). U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC.

Quaqish, B. (2007). An analysis of homeschooled and non-homeschooled students’ performance on an ACT mathematics achievement test. Home School Researcher, 17(2), 1-12.

Radcliffe, J. (2010, May 11). Experts: Home-schooling doesn’t add up across Texas. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Rapp, K. E., Eckes, S. E., & Plucker, J. A. (2006). Cyber charter schools in Indiana: Policy implications of the current statutory language. Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation & Education Policy.

Ray, B. D. (1990). A nationwide study of home education: Family characteristics, legal matters, and student achievement. Salem, OR: NHERI Publications.

Ray, B.D. (1991, Jan/Feb). Contemplations on home education research. Home Education Magazine, 18-19, 23.

Ray, B. D. (1994). A nationwide study of home education in Canada: Family characteristics, student achievement, and other topics. Salem, OR: NHERI Publications.

Ray, B. D. (1997a). Home education across the United States: Family characteristics, student achievement, and other topics. Purcellville, VA: HSLDA Publications.

Ray, B. D. (1997b). Strengths of their own: Home schoolers across America. Salem, OR: NHERI Publications.

Ray, B. D. (1999). Home schooling on the threshold: A survey of research at the dawn of the millennium. Salem, OR: NHERI Publications.

Ray, B. D. (2004a). Home educated and now adults: Their community and civic involvement, views about homeschooling, and other traits. Salem, OR: NHERI Publications.

Ray, B. D. (2004b). Homeschoolers on to college: What research shows us. Journal of College Admissions, 185, 5-11.

Ray, B. D. (2010). Academic achievement and demographic traits of homeschool students: A nationwide study. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, 8. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Ray, B. D. & Eagleson, B. K. (2008). State regulation of homeschooling and homeschoolers’ SAT scores. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, 6. Retrieved December 3, 2012. from

Ray, B. D. & Smith, J. M. (2008). Prize draw guidelines for HSLDA/NHERI academic study. Purcelville, VA: Home School Legal Defense Association. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Ray, B. D. & Wartes, J. (1991). The academic achievement and affective development of home-schooled children. In J. Van Galen & M. A. Pitman (Eds.), Home schooling: Political, historical, and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 43-62). Norwood, NY: Ablex.

Reavis, R. & Zakriski, A. (2005). Are home-schooled children socially at-risk or socially protected? The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 21(9).

Reich, R. (2002). Testing the boundaries of parental authority over education: The case of homeschooling. In S. Macedo & Y. Tamir (Eds.), Moral and political education (pp. 275-313). New York: NYU Press.

Reich, R. (2008). On regulating homeschooling: A reply to Glanzer. Educational Theory, 58(1), 17-23.

Reilly, L., Chapman, A., & O’Donoghue, T. (2002). Home schooling of children with disabilities. Queensland Journal of Educational Research, 18(1), 38-61.

Reimer, F. (2010). School attendance as a civic duty v. home education as a human right. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 5-15.

Richardson, S. N. & Zirkel, P. A. (1991). Home schooling law. In J. Van Galen & M. A. Pitman (Eds.), Home Schooling: Political, Historical, and Pedagogical Perspectives (pp.159-201). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Riegle, P. B. & McKinney, J. R. (2002). Perceptions of home-school regulations by home-school parents and public-school superintendents. Thresholds in Education, 28(1), 18-26.

Rieseberg, R. L. (1995). Home learning, technology, and tomorrow’s workplace. Technos, 4, 12-17.

Roberts, J. (2009). Dispelling the rational basis for homeschooler exclusion from high school interscholastic athletics. Journal of Law and Education, 38, 195-203.

Ross, C. J. (2010). Fundamentalist challenges to core democratic values: Exit and homeschooling. William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 18, 991-1014.

Rothermel, P. (1999). A nationwide study of home education: Early indications and wider implications. Education Now, 24.

Rothermel, P. (2002). Home-education: Rationales, practices and outcomes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Durham.

Rothermel, P. (2004). Home education: Comparison of home- and school-educated children on PIPS baseline assessments. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2, 273-299.

Rothermel, P. (2010). Home education: Practising without prejudice? Every Child Journal, 1(5), 48-53.

Rothermel, P. (2011). Setting the record straight: Interviews with a hundred British home educating families. Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning, 5(10).

Rowe, K. (2011). Stress and coping differences in college students from three high school backgrounds. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.

Rudner, L. M. (1999). Scholastic achievement and demographic characteristics of home school students in 1998. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 7. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Russo, C. J. (2006). Conflicts over directing the education of children: Who controls, parents or school officials. The Journal of Education, 186, 27-40.

Safran, L. (2009). Situated adult learning: The home education neighborhood group. The Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning, 3. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Safran, L. (2010). Legitimate peripheral participation and home education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 107-112.

Saunders, M. K. (2009-2010). Previously homeschooled college freshmen: their first year experiences and persistence rates. Journal of College Student Retention, 11, 77-100.

Schulze, E. W. (1999). The constitutional right of parents to direct the education of their children. Texas School Administrators' Legal Digest, 15, 1-9.

Seo, D. (2009). The profitable adventure of threatened middle-class families: An ethnographic study on homeschooling in South Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10, 409-422.

Shirkey, B. T. (1987). Students’ perspective of home schools: A descriptive study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Shyers, L. (1992). Comparison of social adjustment between home and traditionally schooled students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Slavinski, M. F. (2000). The homeschooling movement in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania as perceived by public school superintendents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Sliwka, A. & Istance, D. (2006). Choice, diversity and “exit” in schooling: A mixed picture. European Journal of Education, 41(1), 45-58.

Smiley, H. T. (2010). She's leaving home: The effect of college experiences on homeschooled students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR.

Smith, C. & Sikkink, D. (1999). Is private school privatizing? First Things, 92, 16-20.

Somerville, S. W. (2005). Legal rights for homeschool families. In B. S. Cooper (Ed.), Home Schooling in Full View: A Reader (pp.135-149). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Sorey, K. & Duggan, M. H. (2008). Homeschoolers entering community colleges: perceptions of admissions officers. Journal of College Admissions, 200, 22-28.

Spiegler, T. (2009). Why state sanctions fail to deter home education: An analysis of home education in Germany and its implications for home education policies. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 297-309.

Spiegler, T. (2010). Parent’s motives for home education: The influence of methodological design and social context. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 3(1), 57-70.

Spinner-Halev, J. (2000). Surviving diversity: Religion and democratic citizenship. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stevens, M. L. (2001). Kingdom of Children: Culture and Controversy in the Homeschooling Movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Stevens, M. L. (2003). The normalisation of homeschooling in the USA. Evaluation & Research in Education, 17(2&3), 90-100.

Stevenson, D. (2009, September/October). Voluntary submission of information to the government. Family Times, 93, 16-17, 19.

Stewart, K. P. & Neeley, R. A. (2005). The impact of home schooling regulations on educational enrollments in the United States. Education, 126, 353-363.

Sun, L. L. (2007). Dare to home school: Faith and cultural experiences of Chinese Christian mothers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Biola University, Los Angeles.

Sutton, J. P. & Galloway, R. S. (2000). College success of students from three high school settings. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 33, 137-146.

Tabone, S. M. (2006). Home schooling in Pennsylvania: A prayer for parental autonomy in education. St. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary, 21, 371-410.

Talbot, M. (2000, 27 February). A mighty fortress. New York Times Magazine.

Taylor, L. A. & Petrie, A. J. (2000). Home education regulations in Europe and recent U.K. research. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1&2), 49-70.

Taylor-Hough, D. (2010). Are all homeschooling methods created equal? Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

Thomas, A. (1994). Conversational learning. Oxford Review of Education, 20(1), 131-142.

Thomas, A. & Pattison, H. (2008). How children learn at home. New York: Continuum.

Thompson, T. W. (2000). Home schooling and “shared” enrollment: Do Nebraska public schools have an obligation to provide part-time instruction? Nebraska Law Review, 79, 840-854.

Tobak, J. W. & Zirkel, P. A. (1982). Home instruction: An analysis of the statutes and case law. University of Dayton Law Review, 8, 1-60.

Tomkins, D. E. (1991). An argument for privacy in support of the choice of home education by parents. Journal of Law and Education, 20, 301-323.

Tung, W. (2010). The road less taken: A qualitative inquiry of Christian homeschooling. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, CO.

Uecker, J. E. (2008). Alternative schooling strategies and the religious lives of American adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47, 563-584.

Van Galen, J. A. (1986). Schooling in private: A study of home education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

Van Galen, J. A. (1988). Ideology, curriculum, and pedagogy in home education. Education and Urban Society, 21, 52-68.

Van Pelt, D. A., Neven, P. A., & Allison, D. J. (2009). Fifteen years later: Home-educated Canadian adults. London, Ontario: Canadian Centre for Home Education.

Varnham, S. (2008). My home, my school, my island: Home education in Australia and New Zealand. Public Space: The Journal of Law and Social Justice, 2, 1-30.

Vaughn, P. A. (2003). Case studies of homeschool cooperatives in southern New Jersey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Widener University, Chester, PA.

Villalba, C. M. (2009). Home-based education in Sweden: Local variations in forms of regulation. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 277-296.

Waddell, T. B. (2010). Bringing it all back home: Establishing a coherent constitutional framework for the re-regulation of homeschooling. Vanderbilt Law Review, 63, 541-598.

Waggoner, C. (2005). A hybrid way of learning: Taught at home and taught at school. Rural Educator, 26(3), 31-34.

Wallace, S. (2000). Home-schooled population requires additional vigilance. AAP News, 17(2), 62.

Wang, L. (2011). Who knows best? The appropriate level of judicial scrutiny on compulsory education laws regarding home schooling. Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development, 25, 413-448.

Webb, J. (1989). The outcomes of home-based education: Employment and other issues. Education Review, 41(2), 121-133.

Webb, D. L. (1997). Home schools and interscholastic sports: Denying participation violates United States constitutional due process and equal protection rights. Journal of Law and Education, 26(3): 123-132.

Webb, S. (2011). Elective home education in the UK. Trentham, UK: Stoke-on-Trent.

Welner, K. M. & Welner, K. G. (1999). Contextualizing homeschooling data: A response to Rudner. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 7. Retrieved December 3, 2012, from

West, R. L. (2009). The harms of homeschooling. Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly, 29, 7-11.

White, S., Moore, M., & Squires, J. (2009). Examination of previously homeschooled college students with the big five model of personality. Home School Researcher, 25(1), 1-7.

White, S., Williford, E., Brower, J., Collins, T., Merry, R., & Washington, M. (2007). Emotional, social, and academic adjustment to college: a comparison between Christian homeschooled and traditionally schooled college freshmen. Home School Researcher, 17(4), 1-7.

Whitehead, J. W. & Crow, A. I. (1993). Home education: Rights and reasons. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books.

Willard, D. J. & Oplinger, D. (2004, 15 November). Claims of academic success rely on anecdotes, flawed data analysis. Akron Beacon Journal.

Wilson, D. C. (2001). Home field disadvantage: The negative impact of allowing home-schoolers to participate in mainstream sports. Virginia Journal of Sports and the Law, 3, 1-32.

Winstanley, C. (2009). Too cool for school? Gifted children and homeschooling. Theory and Research in Education, 7(3), 347-362.

Woodhouse, B. B. (2002). Speaking truth to power: Challenging “The Power of Parents to Control the Education of Their Own.” Cornell Journal of Public Policy 11, 481-501.

Wright, C. (1988). Home school research: Critique and suggestions for the future. Education and Urban Society, 21, 96-113.

Wyatt, G. (2008). Family ties: Relationships, socialization, and home schooling. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Yang, P. Q. & Kayaardi, N. (2004). Who chooses non-public schools for their children? Educational Studies, 30, 231-249.

Yeager, E. T. (1999). A study of cooperation between home schools and public and private schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Yuracko, K. A. (2008). Education off the grid: Constitutional constraints on home schooling. California Law Review, 96, 123-184.

Zirkel, P. A. (1986). Constitutional contours to home instruction: A second view. In T. N. Jones & D. P. Semler (Eds.), School Law Update 1986 (pp. 175-182). Topeka: National Organization on Legal Problems of Education.

Zirkel, P. A. (1997). Home/school cooperation? Phi Delta Kappan, 78, 727-728.

Peer Reviewed Articles