Becoming Fully Intelligent


  • Andrew Johnson Minnesota State University, Mankato


This contribution examines the shortcomings of the traditional view of intelligence. It explores five expanded conceptions of intelligence which include: multiple intelligence theory, the triarchic theory of intelligence, emotional intelligence, holistic intelligence, and spiritual intelligence. As Gardner stated there is more to intelligence than scholarship, which is too often seen as the default and only measure of who or what is intelligent:

 I believe that it is the standard definition of intelligence that narrowly constricts our view, treating a certain form of scholastic performance as if it encompasses the range of human capacities and leading to disdain for those who happen not to be psychometrically bright (Gardner, 1996, p. 205).

 Holistic Education

I am a holistic educator who, in the humanist tradition, believes personal growth and the full development of each human's potential is the ultimate goal of education (DeCarvalho, 1991; Maslow, 1971; Morris, 1978; Rogers, 1969; Patterson, 1973). This growth and development should be not be on a purely intellectual level...

Author Biography

Andrew Johnson, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Dr. Johnson is Professor of Literacy in the Department of Special Education at Minnesota State University, Mankato.





Other Contributions